The Missing Man Table: Honoring Soldiers We Will Never Forget
Across the American landscape wars, battles, individual and groups of soldiers are commemorated and honored through memorials, statues, reenactments and ceremonies. These forms of commemoration are specific to the event or person who is being honored. In addition different ceremonies address different audiences. Some forms of commemorations are very public, such as battlefields which have become historical landmarks; others are extremely private, such as a folded flag honoring the death of a loved one who was a soldier. The Missing Man Table and ceremony falls somewhere in between. It is a ceremony which is held in public or semi-public venues but can be an extremely emotional and personal experience. Its incorporation into military and civilian events is for specific purposes. These purposes, among others, can include remembering lost or fallen comrades, helping to educate children of the sacrifices some soldiers make, and helping individuals make connections with their sense of history or the history of their surroundings. No matter the use behind the ceremony, it is a beautiful and emotional event to witness.
In times of war, there is always the possibility that individuals, both military and civilians, will not make it home. While this is traumatic for the both the families and communities affected, it is more damaging when the whereabouts and condition of a loved one is unknown. Such a person is commonly known as Missing in Action or MIA. If an individual “. . . was taken prisoner or held captive while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing Armed Force; or while serving with friendly forces engaged in armed conflict against an opposing Armed Force” he/she is known as an Prisoners of War or POW and would qualify for a Prisoner of War Medal. Although these individuals are still commonly known as POWs, in 2000 the United States military replaced this designation with the term Missing-Captured. This change was deemed necessary due to the fact that the term Prisoner of War is an “international legal status of military and certain other personnel captured during an armed conflict between two countries and that status entitles those captured to humanitarian treatment under the Third Geneva Convention” and many of the aggressors who are taking US citizens prisoner do not follow these laws. However, due to the fact that most individuals and many government organizations still use the term Prisoner of War, for the purpose of this paper the term POW will be used instead of Missing-Captured.
In the past decades, the United States government has made great strides when it comes to accounting for those individuals who are POW/MIAs. One way in which the United States government is attempting to account for the missing service members is through the Defense POW/Missing Personnel Office. Established in 1993, following a directive from the US Senate to establish a single office to deal with the Prisoner of War and Missing in Action issue, this office spearheads the movement to locate and, if possible, return POWs/MIAs or their remains. The work this department has put into finding the locations of these individuals has resulted in the identification and return of the remains of many American soldiers. For example, following the Vietnam War there were 2,646 unaccounted for Americans in Vietnam, Laos, China, and Cambodia. As of August 1, 2012, 985 of these individuals had been repatriated and identified. Of the remaining 1,282 missing individuals in Vietnam, another 597 are categorized as “no further pursuit”. Once a person has been categorized in this way it means that after an “rigorous investigation, we have conclusive evidence the individual perished, but do not believe it possible to recover his remains.” However, there are still thousands of Americans who are still missing from past wars. In October 2012, the DPMO reported that there are still 83,411 people unaccounted for from past wars including World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, the Vietnam War, and Iraq. To keep these individuals in the hearts and minds of the American people, there have been many groups, programs, and ceremonies developed to honor and remember those who are missing.
Although there are more Prisoners of War and/or those who are classified as Missing in Action from previous wars, it was during the Vietnam War that this issue really came to the attention of the American public. POW/MIA groups, such as the National League of POW/MIA Families, and military groups, such as the Red River Valley Association, were working very hard to insure that those Americans who were unaccounted for were never forgotten by the American public or the government. The National League of POW/MIA Families was loosely organized in the 1960’s by the wife of a Prisoner of War who believed “that the US Government’s policy of keeping a low profile on the POW/MIA issue while urging family members to refrain from publicly discussing the problem was unjustified.” This organization, and others like it, began to bring the issue to the attention of the media, and the American public began to see the establishment of programs and ceremonies to remember and fight for those who were unaccounted for. Some of these programs are still in use today, such as the POW/MIA bracelet program. This program allows individuals to ‘adopt’ a Prisoner of War or an individual who is Missing in Action, by purchasing a bracelet with an inscription of that individuals name printed on it.
The National League of POW/MIA Families is also responsible for the creation of the POW/MIA flag. The original flag was created in 1971 and has been altered many times. In 1990 the 101st Congress passed Public Law 101-355 which recognizes the well-known black flag, with white and black center which contains the bust of a POW and a watch tower in the back ground. This law recognizes this flag, which includes the motto ‘You are not Forgotten’, as “a symbol of our nations concern and commitment to resolving as fully as possible the fates of Americans still prisoner, missing and unaccounted for.” These bracelets, flags and other similar programs, helps to keep this issue in the public eye and to remind Americans that there are still thousands of individuals whose whereabouts are unknown. One of the most touching and impressive ceremonies which military personnel have developed to commemorate unaccounted for service members is known as the Missing Man Table. The Missing Man Table has become a part of dining-in and dining-out services for all branches of the military over the last decades.  It is a formal ceremony which honors POW/MIAs and reminds everyone in attendance the cost some soldiers have paid for America’s freedom. The table is set up in a specific style and each item at and around the table has a specific meaning.
One example of how this table is set up is as follows. A round table is used with a white table cloth, and six place settings. At the center of the table sits a vase tied with a red or yellow ribbon, and holds a red or white rose, depending on which version of the script is being used. On the bread plate lays a slice of lemon and a pinch of salt and next to the plate is an upturned glass. The chairs are left empty and in some ceremonies they are leaned forward against the table. This is one of the most common ways to set up the Missing Man Table. However, there are many alterations which groups can and do make to this table to better address their audience. For example, some groups use one chair instead of six, representing the fragility of one soldier against his or her captors.
The actual ceremony associated with the Missing Man Table is a very solemn event. A moderator reads a script which explains the meaning of each item located on and around the table. The Air Force Chiefs pamphlet provides the following script;
As you entered the dining area, you may have noticed a table at the front, raised to call your attention to its purpose — it is reserved to honor our missing loved ones [or missing comrades in arms, for veterans]. Set for six, the empty places represent Americans still [our men] missing from each of the five services Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard – and civilians. This Honors Ceremony symbolizes that they are with us, here in spirit . . . I would like to explain the meaning of the items on this special table. The table is round — to show our everlasting concern for our missing men. The tablecloth is white — symbolizing the purity of their motives when answering the call to duty. The single red rose, displayed in a vase, reminds us of the life of each of the missing, and the[ir] loved ones and friends of these Americans who keep the faith, awaiting answers. The vase is tied with a red ribbon, symbol of our continued determination to account for our missing. A slice of lemon on the bread plate is to remind us of the bitter fate of those captured and missing in a foreign land. A pinch of salt symbolizes the tears endured by those missing and their families who seek answers. The Bible represents the strength gained through faith to sustain those lost from our country, founded as one nation under God. The glass is inverted — to symbolize their inability to share this evening’s [morning’s/day’s] toast. The chairs are empty — they are missing. Let us now raise our water glasses in a toast to honor America’s POW/MIAs and to the success of our efforts to account for them(sic).
When the Missing Man Table is set up with six chairs, an honor guard is often used to place the covers corresponding with the military branch at each of the place settings. Who exactly came up with the symbolism for each object is unknown, and new versions of scripts are continuously being developed. Some ceremonies incorporate the use of Taps, however this is more acceptable for the Fallen Comrades Table, explained below, than it is for the Missing Man Table. In another Air Force script for the Missing Man Table, an explanation of why Taps could be seen as inappropriate is provided by stating, “Taps is played in honor of our fallen comrades who have served this country. The POW/MIA ceremony is to recognize those individuals who have served this country, but are not necessarily deceased. The playing of Taps in this case may be premature and could be deemed as offensive.” This shows that while there are many different ways to conduct this ceremony, some alterations are more acceptable depending on the setting and script used.
Another way the Missing Man Table is altered to better suit individual circumstances is to honor those who were Killed in Action or KIAs instead of MIA/POW. This table is called the Fallen Comrades Table. The table is set up in primarily the same way as the MIA/POW table, but the opening statement and some of the meanings are altered honor fallen soldiers more directly. For example, at the 2010 Veterans Day Tribute, hosted by Georgia State University’s Student Veterans Association (SVA), the adapted Fallen Comrade Table was incorporated at the beginning of the ceremony. The moderator of the event read the following intro.
You may have noticed the small table set for one that is off on its own – it is reserved to honor our fallen comrades in arms. This symbolizes that they are with us, here in spirit. We should never forget the brave men and women who answered our nation’s call and served the cause of freedom in a special way. We are ever mindful that the sweetness of enduring peace has always been tainted by the bitterness of personal sacrifice. We are compelled to never forget that while we enjoy our daily pleasures, there are others who have endured the agonies of pain, deprivation and death.
In most scripts of the Fallen Comrades Table a form of military head gear, such as a patrol cap, and boots are incorporated into the table set up. The headgear is set in front of or on the plate, and the boots are placed at the position of attention directly behind the chair. These items are included to signify the uniform the soldier wore while defending the United States. The incorporation of the boots and headgear are similar to that of Battlefield Cross which is used either in combat or at a soldier’s base camp when a soldier killed in action. The cross incorporates a soldier’s rifle, helmet, boots, dog tags in such a way to honor the ultimate sacrifice that this individual made and mirrors the message that the Fallen Comrades Table attempts to portray. The alterations to the original Missing Man Table make the Fallen Comrades Table more relatable to many civilians and Veterans due to the fact that there have not been nearly as many MIA/POWs in recent international conflicts, but most Veterans and many non-Veterans know someone who was killed in action.
The Fallen Comrades Table is so popular and well known in the modern day that some military institutions believe that it is the original format. They are unaware that the Missing Man Table was actually proceeded and was the foundation the Fallen Comrades Table, not the other way around. Kathy Keirsey of the Cadet Hostess Office and Directorate of Cadet Activities of the United States Military Academy, West Point, was happy to assist in the research of this paper, but stated that “you will find it much easier to research on the web if you use the terms ‘Honoring Fallen Comrades’ or ‘Fallen Comrades’ Table’.” Never once in this e-mail did Keirsey ever mention the Missing Man Table or reference this ceremony in anyway. It was clear that she was under the misconception that the Fallen Comrades Table was the initial version of this table. While the Fallen Comrades Table is an amazing way to commemorate fallen soldiers, and is a impressive ceremony in its own right, it is important that at least those who choose to use alterations of the Missing Man Table to remember its origins so the original message this table was meant to spread is not lost.
In an attempt to ensure that the Missing Man Table and the Prisoners of War and Missing in Action it represents, are not forgotten by the American public a children’s book was written on this ceremony and its meanings. The book is titles America’s White Table and was written by Margot Theis Raven, who is actually married to a POW from the Vietnam War. This book explains the meaning of the Missing Man Table in such a way that children can understand what it means to honor those who have served in the military and can realize that there are some individuals whose whereabouts are unknown. In this story, a young girl named Katie, and her sisters are asked help their mother set up the table as a gift to their Uncle John, who we find out during the story was a POW during the Vietnam War. Through this touching story and vivid pictures children learn the meaning of each item on the table, and see how the table and other forms of recognition can be used to honor Veterans from all eras.
Raven wrote this book in an attempt to bring not only the Missing Man Table but Veterans in general back into the public eye. In an interview conducted by The Associated Press in 2005, the same year that America’s White Table was published, Raven stated that she would like to eventually see this table become a tradition for all Americans. “Be it Memorial Day or Veterans’ Day or the Fourth of July, that’s the point. . . Every single day of freedom is brought to you by that person who is not sitting there.” Since its publication this book as helped educate the public on the meaning of the Missing Man Table and helped to remind individuals that there are still Americans missing in foreign lands. Orson Sindle, a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Marine Corps and a Vietnam Prisoner of War from 1966-1973, explained why this table and the corresponding book are important to this issue by stating,
The POWs in Vietnam were away so long that many beyond their families, fellow warriors, and closest friends simply forgot they were gone. Would anyone remember them after so long? Margot Raven has provided a wonderful story about ‘remembering’. Its origins come from the spirit and loyalty of a bunch of tough and daring fighter pilots deeply concerned for their fallen comrades whom they vowed to never forget – A meaningful message for us all, young and old.
This quote displays why this ceremony, and book, are so important to so many different people. It gives America a way to remember, even for a short moment, those who have not come home. It also allows those who were POWs themselves to feel like they are still doing something for those who did not make it home with them. This small table makes a huge gesture to so many different individuals, and has even been used as an educational tool.
In elementary schools around the country this book has been incorporated into lesson plans to help educated children about Veterans. Some classes and schools use this book and ceremony to directly honor Veterans and the military whether it is on Veterans’ Day or Memorial Day. One such school is G.O. Bailey Primary School in Tifton, Georgia. In 2007 the second grade class not only read America’s White Table in class, but set up a Missing Man Table in the lobby of the school for all of the students and teachers to see in honor of Memorial Day. The children then had the opportunity to explain the meaning of the table to their classmates. At Ballentine Elementary school in Colombia, South Carolina, students also set up a white table at the entrance of their school for Veterans Day. “”We wanted it to be a veteran’s celebration all week,” said Paulette Moses, a teacher at the school. The students had the opportunity to be aired on the announcements and explain what the table means to the whole school. The school participated in this ceremony in the “hope [that] students realize that remembering those serving, past and present, is something that should be done every day.” These are two examples of how the Missing Man Table is used not only commemorate those who have served in the military, but to educate children on the sacrifices some soldiers have given in the line of duty.
Although the Missing Man Table and ceremony is a well-known tradition within the military community and has spread to some civilian areas as well and there are a wide variety of scripts easily accessible for use, finding information on the history and origin of this subject poses an issue. According to the historical divisions of the different branches of the military, there are no historical documents relating to this table and/or the ceremony. For example, when contacted the Historical Resources Branch at the U.S. Army Center of Military History at Fort McNair, D.C. stated that “we could not find any reliable and verifiable information on the history of the Missing Man Table. As far as we can tell this practice arose at an undetermined time and no one thought to document the practice until after it was well established.” This is also the case for multiple university and military libraries including Georgia State University, and the Donovan Research Library at Fort Benning. Sheon Montgomery, a Reference Archivist at The Vietnam Center and Archive at Texas Tech University, was also unable to locate any information on the Missing Man Table, and this archive is dedicated to preserving any and all information and documents related The Vietnam War.
Many POW/MIA groups have even asked to be informed if the origin of the Missing Man Table was discovered in the course of this research. When contacted to see if they had any information on the table the POW Network replied “When you find the answer, please let us know! [We] Have never found an origin in 23 years, no story, just as you – many scripts and all in use. . . We have asked and asked – even among our POW returnees – and no one has an answer(sic).” Through communication with these and different historical societies, POW/MIA groups and issue activists, it is clear that the development and incorporation of this ceremony has not been clearly documented over the years by any group or individual.
While this is the case for verifiable historical documents, the history of this ceremony has been circulated unofficially throughout the years through word of mouth and in recent years via the internet. It is generally understood that this table came to fruition during the Vietnam War but when and who created is still debatable. This lack of historical documentation has led to one individual and one group both either claiming or being credited for the creation of the Missing Man Table. In Margot Raven’s book Americas White Table it is stated that service members of the Red River Valley Association or the River Rats, who are a group of airmen who flew missions in Vietnam, initially began this ceremony during the Vietnam War. The River Rats made a commitment to each other while in combat to have reunions once the war was over and the POWs were returned home. However, prior to the end of the war in 1973, these service members held practice reunions while still in Vietnam. It should be noted that there is contradictory evidence which indicates that the first practice reunions were actually held in Thailand, not Vietnam. In addition to stating that location of the reunions Raven also writes in her book that “it was at the first practice ‘reunion,’ that the MIA/POW table was set in remembrance of fallen and missing comrades.”  Raven claims she contacted the Air Force while working on her book and was told that the Missing Man Table was created by the River Rats. However when this office was contacted in the course of this research they were not able to provide any information about who created the ceremony. The only information the Air Force Historical Studies Office was able to provide was an Air Force field manual containing the regulations of the ceremony and that the table was created sometime during the Vietnam War. Although the Air Force was not able to confirm or deny these claims, similar to almost all of the groups contacted, many individuals give the founding fathers of the Red River Valley Association not only credit for creating the ceremony but for insuring that it was continued after the end of the war.
There are three Vietnam Veterans who are given the credit for bringing this ceremony back to the states. These individuals include Colonel “Scrappy” Johnson, Colonel Larry Picket, and Colonel Robin Olds.  These Veterans helped to found the Red River Valley Association (RRVA) in 1969. The original purpose of this group was to allow fighter pilots flying missions in the Red River Valley of Vietnam to share tactical information and techniques with each other. Towards the end of the Vietnam War the RRVA decided that state side, its main purpose would be to keep POW/MIAs in the minds of all Americans. The fact that the mission of this group and its members is to remember those who are unaccounted for, it makes sense that they could have created the Missing Man Table ceremony to ensure that individuals, especially those who serve in the military, never forget those who did not make it home.
In 1985, a member of the RRVA wrote a paper on the history of the Red River Valley Association. Major David Harwood wanted to document the things that the River Rats were doing stateside, including establishing a Scholarship Fund for children of MIAs. Not once in the course of this paper, including descriptions of every ‘practice’ and ‘real’ reunion, is the Missing Man Table mentioned. There is no mention of the founding fathers of the organization establishing this table, or that it was used at any of the events. This does not mean that they did not create and/or use the table at their events; it just once again proves that the origin and time of creation of the Missing Man Table cannot be verified. Other sources, including Margot Raven, state that at the first ‘real’ reunion of the River Rats in 1973 the Missing Man Table was incorporated for all to see. It should be noted as stated previously that claims are made that this association had been holding practice reunions with the table for years.
Although the above information seems credible, another version of how this ceremony, or at least the first official script, was established stateside is attributed to Master Sergeant Lawrence H. Tassone, United States Air Force (Retired). Through his own claims, MSgt Tassone states that, as a member of the Air Force Sergeants Association (AFSA), he was asked to help organize the opening ceremony for an AFSA convention at which time he, presumably, authored the script for the Missing Man Table. In an e-mail correspondence, MSgt Tassone provided the following information on when he first wrote this script.
In mid-January 1980 one of the Chap 1380 officer’s asked me to assist with opening ceremonies. . . After spending a little time pondering the situation I recommended we hold a brief solemn ceremony right after the opening invocation and flag posting so as not to quell the later more festive activities planned over a 3-day period. After that was agreed to I sat down one evening and began to put my thoughts on paper. . . On occasion I receive a phone call from someone (friend, relative or acquaintance) who has just attended the ceremony done using the original script and will see an acknowledgement at the bottom of a program card indicating my authorship. . . As the author of all the scripts used at AFSA conventions from 1981-2003, this ceremony was performed numerous times at AFSA’s convention and hence thousands became aware of its existence.(sic)
In a follow up e-mail, MSgt Tassone was asked where he had come up with this concept and whether he had seen a ceremony similar to this previously. He replied that he was not sure where or how he came up with the idea, and that he sat down with the purpose of establishing a ceremony to honor those service members who are still unaccounted for. Furthermore Tassone stated that “I know I hadn’t seen anything quite like this ceremony prior because I hadn’t been involved with any POW/MIA events prior to this convention.” Without historical documentation from any source these claims are hard to confirm or deny.
In an attempt to locate an original script used by the AFSA, or at least confirm that MSgt Tassone was a member of this association at the time, the Air Force Sergeants Association and the AFSA’s Memorial Museum were contacted for information. Neither group could not confirm or deny Tassone’s claims. Director of the Memorial Museum Keith Reed stated in a phone conversation that he had no information that states Tassone did not write the script to the MIA/POW table, and likewise, the museum no longer has the original file which could corroborate that he did author the first script. Reed continued to say “if Tazz (sic) says he did it, he’s a man of his word in my opinion.” While there is no reason or evidence to believe that Master Sergeant Tassone did not write one of the first official scripts still in use, the contradictory evidence from multiple sources that this ceremony had its roots in Vietnam and was originally created by the River Rats, cannot be refuted and thus the claims made by Tassone should not be taken as the actual origin of this ceremony.
One interesting aspect of when it comes to the contradictory claims to the development of the Missing Man Table is that portions of this information are provided on many websites. For example on touchthewall.org, the information Margot Raven provides in her book and information on MSgt Tassone are all provided one after the other. In addition nowhere on this website, or any of the other sites which provide the same contradictory information, does it state ‘here is one possible origin and here is another’. While this does not assist in the establishment of the actual beginnings of this ceremony, it is interesting that no one has been able to discover the truth, or even note that they are providing two different possible origins of the Missing Man Table.
Where ever the Missing Man Table did originate, one confirmable fact about the ceremony is the process by which it was incorporated into military dining-in and dining-out events. Unlike most military ceremonies it was not mandated down from the top of the military command. Instead, this event was adopted through an evolutionary process. Every individual within the military, whether a low ranking enlisted service member or a high ranking officer, in every military unit in the country is issued their branches field manual, or FM. These FMs establish a set protocol, which insures that every soldier in the designated military branch performs tasks in the same manner, no matter what unit they are attached to or where they are stationed. This ensures everything moves smoothly in the different branches of the military. When it comes to military dining-in and dining-out events the corresponding FM provides information on every aspect of the night from how tables are set up, to acceptable menus, to ceremonies used, such as the Missing Man Table. Due to the hierarchical format of the military, most decisions to incorporate new ceremonies in to military events would occur in a top-down style. A change would be decided upon and new field manuals would be issued, at which point new ceremonies or changes to existing ceremonies would occur.
What was unique about the incorporation of the Missing Man Table and ceremony into military events is that it occurred as a “roll-out” process. This means that it has never been mandated from the top down that this ceremony must now be incorporated in military dining-in and dining-out events. Instead soldiers and civilians who witnessed this ceremony took it back to their units and campaigned to have it included in their stations’ military events. This process continued until now we see this ceremony at almost every military dining event and in many noteworthy military ceremonies throughout the country. Although it has never been mandated that the Missing Man Table is required by the US Military, if a unit of one of the military branches does decided utilize the Missing Man Table at an event, then those organizing the event are required to abided by the regulations, and utilize the script provided in their respective field manuals.
No matter when this ceremony was created or by whom, it is clear that it has become an important way to commemorate and remember those individuals who are no longer with us. These individual can include POW/MIA or KIA. In all of its different formats the Missing Man Table is used in multiple settings, not only during official military events. Many Veterans groups, including those with no direct times to POW/MIAs incorporate this ceremony in their events. One example of such a group is the Georgia State Chapter of the Student Veterans Association. As stated previously, at a 2010 Veterans Day Celebration the Fallen Comrades version of this table was incorporated into the celebration. The reason behind including this table is easily describable by stating, “Although this event was a time for all Veterans, military family members and military supporters to be together in a celebration of service and dedication, it was important that all of our members have an opportunity to remember our brothers and sisters who could not be with us.” This type of sentiment seems to ring true for many of the groups, schools and units which still use the Missing Man Table or one of its different versions.
The U.S. Navel Academy takes it one step further. Leo Mehalic, a public affairs officer, confirms that the academy not only uses the Missing Man Table, but has a permanent table set up in the King Hall Dining Hall where the Midshipmen take their meals on a daily basis. The actual script and ceremony is not read except at ceremonies such as Veterans’ Day celebrations. One alteration to the scrip/ceremony that the USNA makes is that the single chair at the table is representative of the schools missing shipmen. When ask about why the USNA continues this tradition Mehalic replied, “like so many traditions here at the Naval Academy, this is considered vital and we continue to expose our Midshipmen to this as a way of reminding them of the service and commitment they share and the sacrifices that others have made going before them.” The Naval Academy uses this ceremony in a way to not only remind students of those who are unaccounted for or KIA, but also the help them relate to the history and tradition of their school.
Finding ways to commemorate those individuals who are Prisoners of War or Missing in Action is an important and emotional thing to do. Many ceremonies, bracelets, and flags have been created to try and keep these individuals in the minds of the American people. The Missing Man Table is a vibrant way to remind everyone, both military and civilian, that there are still unaccounted for Americans from past wars. Although the origin of the Missing Man Table cannot be verified, one thing rings true, there are a lot of people who care passionately about this issue and want to do whatever they can so these service members are never forgotten.
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Air Force Historical Society Office. E-mail with author. September 28,2012.
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 Dining-in is a very formal military dinner at which spouses would not be invited. In comparison dining-out is a formal dinner at which spouses are welcome. It is slightly more relaxed with dinner, drinks and dancing.
All Military. “Dining In/Dining Out.” Accessed December 3, 2012. http://www.allmilitary.com/board/viewtopic.php?id=2223
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 . “Missing Man Table & Ceremony.”
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 Raven, Margot Theis. America’s White Table. Ann Arbor: Sleeping Bear Press, 2005.
 Margot Theis Raven. “America’s White Table Articles -1”. Accessed December 3, 2012. http://www.margotraven.com/Pages/americaswhitetablearticles.aspx
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 “America’s White Table Articles -1”. Accessed December 3, 2012.
 Historical Resources Branch, U.S. Army Center of Military History, Ft. McNair. E-mail to author. October 19, 2012.
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 River Rats is an nick name given to pilots who flew with the Red River Valley Fighter Pilots
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 Harwood, David B. MAJ. River Rats: A History of the Red River Valley Association. April, 1985. Air University. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a160090.pdf
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 Touch the Wall. “Prisoner of War and Missing in Action.” Accessed December 3, 2012. http://www.touchthewall.org/POWMIA.html
 Air Force Historical Society Office. E-mail with author. September 28,2012.
 Cheryl Cerbrone. E-mail with author. September 26, 2012. and from America’s White Table.
 Red River Valley Fighter Pilot Association. “History.” Accessed December 3, 2012.http://www.river-rats.org/about_us/history.php
 Harwood. River Rats: A History of the Red River Valley Association.
 Lawrence Tassone. E-mail with author. September 10, 2012.
 Lawrence Tassone. E-mail with author. September 21, 2012.
 Keith Reed. Director of AFSA Memorial Museum. Phone conversation with author. November 13, 2012
 Wikipedia. “United States Army Field Manuals.” Last modified October 1, 2012. Accessed Decmber 3, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army_Field_Manuals
 Department of the Air Force. “Air Force Pamphlet 34-1202.” October 4, 2006. Accessed December 3, 2012. http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/AFPAM34-1202.pdf
 Raven. America’s White Table
 Cheryl Cerbrone. E-mail with author. September 26, 2012
 Department of the Air Force. “Air Force Pamphlet 34-1202.”
 Quote from Victoria Voelkel, former Vice President (2010-2011) of the Georgia State University’s chapter of the Student Veterans of America.
 Leo Mehalic, USNA Public Affairs. E-mail with author. October 3, 2012.